Cervical Syndrome

It is a general term used to describe various symptoms that are concentrated in the neck area such as: stiffness, neuralgia, dizziness, headaches, etc.

  • There is pain and stiffness in the neck area, which may extend to the back and side of the neck, the shoulder area or even the upper back area.
  • Pain starting from shoulder blade region and extending to upper extremity (arm, forearm and fingers). Numbness and a change in sensation in the fingers or muscle weakness in the upper limb may occur.
  • There may often be a headache and pain that is reported as discomfort during certain movements, as rest pain or as discomfort that occurs mainly in the night when the person is trying to sleep.
  • Medication
  • Physiotherapy, which aims to resolve the accompanying muscle spasm and to mobilize all the joints of the cervical spine, as well as to strengthen the neck muscles, and improve the posture of the cervical spine.


Tendonitis is an inflammation of the thick fibrous cords that attach muscle to bone. These cords are called tendons. The condition causes pain and tenderness at the joint.

Tendonitis can be caused by a sudden injury. But repeating the same movement over time is a much more likely cause. This puts stress on tendons.

Symptoms often include:
  • Pain, often described as a dull ache, especially when moving the hurt limb or joint
  • Feeling a grating or crackling sensation when you move the tendon
  • Tenderness
  • Mild swelling
  • Warm up before exercising and stretching exercises
  • Supportive shoes or insoles for exercise
  • Proper posture and body positions for all activities
  • Regular breaks from repetitive exercises
  • Ice the area
  • Avoiding activities that cause symptoms
  • Resting the injured area
  • Anti-inflammatory medicine

Muscle Strain

Sprain is the rupture of the muscle fibers from either too strong contraction, over stretching or from a direct blow on the muscle by some external factor.

  • Decreased elasticity of muscles due to omission of stretching exercises
  • Excessive muscle fatigue after prolonged exercise
  • Poor equipment (e.g. inappropriate footwear)
  • Exercising in a wet and cold environment
  • Poor diet and lack of potassium, sodium or magnesium in the body
  • Bad technique when performing the exercises
Sprain Classification:
  • First Degree: simple stretching of the muscle fibers is observed.
  • Second Degree: a partial rupture of the muscle fibers is observed.
  • Third Degree: a complete tear of the muscle is observed.
  • Immediately after the injury we apply: immobilization - ice therapy - compression - elevation of the limb.
  • Decongest the area from the hematoma / edema and improve mobility with local tissue support (bandaging or kinesiotaping).
  • Gentle stretches.
  • Strength program that begins with isometric exercises and continues progressively with plyometric exercises.
  • Exercises should never exceed pain thresholds while resistances are progressively increased.

Rheumatoid Arthritis

It is a chronic inflammatory, autoimmune and progressive disease of the joints, which causes pain, swelling and stiffness. There may be periods where symptoms become worse, known as flare-ups or flares. In some people, the condition can damage a wide variety of body systems, including the skin, eyes, lungs, heart and blood vessels.

  • Tender, warm, swollen joints
  • Affected joints experience pain and stiffness (especially in the morning after waking up).
  • The affected joints are enlarged and show deformity and ankylosis (The fingers of the hand have the characteristic inclination outwards, towards the side of the little finger).
  • The skin becomes thin and shiny, and characteristic subcutaneous nodules appear.
  • Fatigue, fever and loss of appetite
There's no cure for rheumatoid arthritis. However, early diagnosis and appropriate treatment enables many people with the condition to have periods of months or even years between flares. This can help them to lead full lives and continue regular employment.

The goal is to reduce pain, maintain as much mobility as possible in the joints and limit deformities.

The main treatment options include:
  • medicine that is taken long term to relieve symptoms and slow the progress of the condition
  • physiotherapy and occupational therapy can help keep the person mobile and manage any problems they have with daily activities
  • surgery to correct any joint problems that develop

Multiple Sclerosis

It is a condition of unknown etiology where the sheath that covers the nerves, the myelin, is destroyed and the nerve is damaged.

There is bilateral loss of vision, vertigo, ataxia (the person does not control their movements), diplopia (the person sees double), dysarthria (difficulty speaking) and paralysis.

The disease may progress with flares and remissions, or symptoms may progressively worsen over time.

There is no known cure for the condition, just ways to treat the symptoms and delay the progression of the disease.

Physical therapy:

Passive and active kinesiotherapy, coordination and balance exercises, exercises for spasticity, muscle strengthening, pain management, exercises for the person's functionality.

Dry Needling

Acupuncture is effective in treating pain and can even be twice as effective as the best analgetic drug therapy for back pain and musculoskeletal pain. Acupuncture, whether Chinese or Dry Needling, is a powerful weapon for treating many types of pain and ailments. The main difference between them is that Chinese Acupuncture is used for all types of pain and ailments, while Dry Needle (Dry Needle) mainly for local myofascial pains.

The Dry Needling technique uses a fine flexible needle as in classical acupuncture. The technique involves the insertion and repeated manipulation of the needle on the trigger point, so as to produce a local contraction response which will result in muscle relaxation.

Mechanism of Dry Needling

Over the years it has been proven that the long-term therapeutic effect is due to the mechanical stimulus of the needle itself. When a needle tip hits a trigger point, the muscle reacts with a local contraction.

The Dry Needling technique can mechanically disrupt the normal contraction of the trigger point. Dry Needling stimulates certain neurological sensors in the body that modulate pain signals. It can also cause positive local biochemical changes and lead to increased blood flow.


Stretches are exercises designed to develop muscle flexibility, elasticity and joint flexibility. It is important to stretch all muscle groups.

In addition to the general stretches that concern the whole body, do not forget to stretch more specifically those muscle groups that will receive training. So in this way you will avoid any injuries during training.

The duration varies, from a few minutes such as 5-10 minutes, and up to 60 minutes if a full stretching class is performed. A simple program of systematic stretching can maintain the flexibility-elasticity of the muscles as well as the flexibility-mobility of the joints at very good levels.

The key to a healthy, natural posture is the balance between the strength and flexibility of the competing muscles.

This balance is best achieved through exercises and stretching programs.

Stretch results:

The systematic implementation of a program of stretching exercises, whether in combination with some sports activities or not, is sure to bring many benefits to the practitioner. Such as:
  • Muscle relaxation
  • Relief from muscle pain
  • Reduction of stress and tension
  • Injury prevention
  • Development of elasticity-flexibility
  • Performance improvement
  • Develop self-discipline

Carpal Tunnel Syndrome

Carpal tunnel syndrome occurs when the tunnel becomes narrowed or when the tissue surrounding the tendons swells, putting pressure on the median nerve and reducing its blood supply.  

  • Numbness
  • Tingling
  • Pain in the hand and forearm
In most patients, carpal tunnel syndrome gets worse over time. If untreated for too long, it can lead to permanent dysfunction of the hand, including loss of sensation in the fingers and weakness.

  • Heredity
  • Repetitive use
  • Wrong position of the Hand and wrist during everyday activities
  • Pregnancy (Hormonal changes)
  • Health conditions like diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis and thyroid gland imbalance
  • Bracing or splinting
  • Activity changes (Ergonomic position of the hand)
  • Nerve gliding exercises
  • Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs)

Rectus - Adductor Syndrome

It is the syndrome in which the muscles or tendons of the lower abdominal wall weaken. The location of the pain is in the inguinal (groin) region of the abdominal wall, where the "classic" inguinal hernia also appears.

  • Pain in the lower abdominal muscles
  • Pain in the groin
  • Feeling of heaviness in the area of the abdominal muscles as well as the adductor muscles
The symptoms are aggravated by activities/sports in which there are movements of speed, turning and bending of the trunk (football, basketball, volleyball). The symptoms may worsen by coughing and sneezing.


Refrain from any sporting activity, anti-inflammatory treatment, ice therapy, physical therapy with isometric exercises and stabilization exercises of all muscle groups in the area.

Stress Fracture

A stress fracture occurs when force is exerted on a particular point of the bone, persistently and for a long time. Unlike common fractures that require a violent mechanism of injury, a fatigue fracture occurs without serious injury. It is essentially a manifestation of an overuse syndrome.

The most common fatigue fractures are located in the tibia and the lower leg.
  • Discharge of the member
  • Physical therapy
  • Proper diet
  • Taking medications that promote fracture healing
Prevention tips:
  • Rest: the rest periods must be sufficient for the healing of minor injuries that occur during training.
  • Alternation of exercises: is a correct training tactic for uniform exercise of the athlete and avoiding the monotonous burden of a specific area of the body.
  • Equipment: Timely replacement of worn shoes, racket, tartan, etc.
  • Training: Trust experienced and qualified trainers/gyms and don't hesitate to report any unusual symptoms during exercise.

Fascial Nerve Paralysis

It is damage to the facial nerve which is responsible for the mobility of the facial muscles. The most common etiology is idiopathic and is called Bell's palsy or 'chilling paralysis'.

It is probably due to a transient swelling. It is believed that this swelling is caused by sudden exposure to cold and for this reason it is called 'chill paralysis'. The nerve can also be affected by some viruses such as those of the common cold.

Other causes: meningitis, inflammation of the inner ear, skull fractures, tumors, infection by the herpes zoster virus, poisoning, diabetes etc.

The clinical picture is characterized by paresis or paralysis of the muscles of the half face corresponding to the affected nerve. This results in the drooping of the corner of the mouth and the inability to tighten the eyelids.


Medication is given immediately to remove the swelling. In case of unsatisfactory restoration of the nerve's function, physical therapy treatment with electrical stimulation of the affected nerve is necessary.

Plantar Fasciitis

The plantar fascia is a bundle of fibers that connects the lower surface of the heel to the metatarsals. It helps maintain the shape of the foot and arch. Like the string of a bow, it connects the back to the front of the foot, playing an important role in all its functions, including standing, walking and running.

When it is affected it causes pain and this is the condition we call "plantar fasciitis". The pain typically occurs in the morning, at the first step after the person gets out of bed and generally after a period of rest.

The most frequent causes have to do with prolonged or increased loading of the plantar fascia, very tight gastrocnemius, very high or low arch and over-pronation of the foot, obesity, etc.

  • Pause any activities for a few weeks and avoid standing for long hours and walking on a hard surface
  • Stretching
  • Ice therapy
  • Shock wave therapy
  • Dry needling

Pain with change of weather

The pain that occur is usually either from arthritis or from different post-traumatic conditions and is most often located in the knee, hip, wrist and shoulder.

Hippocrates argued that changing weather and humidity can cause pain in already stressed parts of our musculoskeletal system.

Why is this pain caused?

It has been observed that atmospheric air pressure is responsible for the appearance of symptoms, including headache and mood swings. Most often, pain occurs in people who have some rheumatic condition, that is, in joints of the skeletal system. Also, pain can occur in old injuries, such as fractures in the arm, leg or in diseases of the spine.

These conditions can now be treated in natural ways through physiotherapy.


It is a syndrome characterized by diffuse musculoskeletal pain, tenderness and other general symptoms such as sleep and emotional disturbance.


Diffuse pain, fatigue, hypersensitivity to touch, light, sound and memory disturbances. Fibromyalgia pain is described as constant and deep.

The causes are unknown. A trauma or emotional stress or even a disease may be responsible.

Most researchers agree that there is a disorder in the transmission of nerve impulses in the central nervous system.

  • Relaxation techniques, diet and exercise play an important role in treatment.
  • Α gentle exercise program with stretches helps maintain muscle tone and reduce pain and stiffness (swimming, cycling, walking and hydrotherapy), therapeutic massage, acupuncture, gentle aerobic exercise, yoga.

Respiratory Physiotherapy

Respiratory physical therapy is a technique that through a series of chest clearing techniques, along with exercises, teaches the patient resting positions to maximize the functional capacity of their lungs.

The goal is to unclog the patient's airways and help them return to physical activity and exercise.

Respiratory physiotherapy is indicated for diseases that have affected the respiratory system, such as:
  • Chronic bronchitis
  • Emphysema
  • Cystic fibrosis
  • Asthma
  • Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)
  • Pneumonia
  • After complex chest surgeries (heart, lungs)

Meniscus Tear


A meniscus tear is one of the most common knee injuries. Anyone can suffer a meniscus tear, but athletes and especially those who participate in team sports (such as basketball, soccer, and volleyball) are more susceptible.

The menisci (inner and outer) are two hard, elastic anatomical formations composed mainly of water and collagen fibers.

They have a horseshoe shape and are inserted between the articular surfaces of the tibia and femur. They mainly serve to absorb loads and improve the contact of the femur with the tibia while helping to stabilize and lubricate the knee, making its movement smoother.

The mechanism of meniscal tears is usually the loading of the bent knee with simultaneous flexion.

 The most common symptoms are:

  • Pain on the inside or outside of the knee (corresponding to the torn meniscus)
  • Swelling and stiffness
  • Bruising or impingement of the knee when there is a dislocated piece
  • Feeling unsteady


The inflammation process is an important stage in healing. But when the inflammation is prolonged then it can cause discomfort and irritation in the affected area.
Symptoms of inflammation:
  • Pain
  • Redness
  • Immobility
  • Swelling
  • Increased temperature
Inflammation is categorized as acute or chronic.
Acute inflammation is one that begins quickly and becomes severe in a short period of time. Signs and symptoms usually only appear for a few days, but may persist for a few weeks in some cases.
Chronic inflammation refers to long-term inflammation that lasts for several months, even years. It can result from an inability to eliminate the factor that caused the acute inflammation, due to some autoimmune disorder or repeated irritation of the area.

Ankle Sprain

Ankle sprain is the traumatic tear (cross section) of various ligaments of the joint, but without fracture of the bones. Sometimes, an ankle sprain coexists with a bone fracture, so it is a mixed traumatic injury.

There are 3 degrees of sprain:

1st degree sprains: Slight tear, sprain of ligaments
2nd degree sprains: Partial rupture of the ligaments
3rd degree sprains: Complete rupture of the ligaments

Symptoms: Pain, edema (swelling), stiffness, lameness (the person limps) and hematoma (2nd + 3rd degree)

Frozen Shoulder

Frozen shoulder or adhesive capsulitis of the shoulder, is a distinct clinical condition, with main characteristics of sudden or gradual chronic pain in the shoulder and limitation of all movements of the joint, both active and passive, in all directions, without particularly pathological findings in the x-rays of the shoulder.

Acute stage:
There is sudden night pain. The mobility of the shoulder joint is limited and particularly painful.

Subacute stage:
Pain subsides slightly, mobility remains limited, periarticular muscles atrophy, and there is permanent stiffness. All movements of the upper limb are performed exclusively by the scapula.

Impingement Syndrome

Impingement syndrome is an overuse shoulder injury. It is created by the friction of the rotator cuff tendons with the acromion which is a bony protrusion of the shoulder blade above the upper arm (humerus). Thus the tendons impinge, become irritated and inflamed as they pass through the subacromial space. This leads to pain, weakness and loss of movement in the shoulder joint.

Trigger Point

The myofascial trigger point or trigger point is a hypersensitive point in the muscle, which is characterized as active when it is painful on pressure or projects (reflects) pain to some area of the body far from it, while limiting the mobility of the area and reducing muscle strength.

  • Shock Wave Therapy
  • Ischemic pressure
  • Dry Needle